Ujung Kulon is one of the most famous Indonesia’s National Park. Located in the south-western tip of west java on the Sunda shelf where the area also covers Peninsula and some islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa – a well known active volcano in the world. This park that located in Ujung Kulon, Pandeglang disctrict – Banten Province was establish and declared as National Park in 1992 by UNESCO World Heritage Site for protecting the endangered Javan Rhinoceros and wild bull or banteng in Indonesian language.
This park is very famous with its natural beauty and geological interest hence many researchers from worldwide come to visit this park particularly for the study of inland volcanoes. Beside of that, this area contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java island and has so many species of plants and animals. Ujung Kulon which is means “West Point” in english, possesses a very exceptional profile of Indonesia’s wilderness from land forested mountain ranges to the coral seas. What makes this park even more remarkable is the park remains a pristine haven of its nature in Java island, the most densely populated area in Indonesia.
The park covers area 120,551 hectares that are divided into 78,214 hectares of land and 44,337 hectares of surrounding reefs and sea. The land area can be roughly divided into three areas: the island of Panaitan to the north west, the triangular shaped Peninsula, and the Honje Mountain Range to the east of the Peninsula’s Isthmus.
This national park has tropical maritime climate, some degrees cooler than inland areas of Java island and averagely produces an annual rainfall of approximately 3250mili meters. The temperature range between 25° to 30° degree Celsius with the humidity level averagely vary from 80% to 90%. Between April to October are the drier months, during this period there are long periods of fine, calm weather with occasional spells of overcast skies, rain and rougher seas.
Flora & Fauna
Ujung Kulon National Park is one of very few areas offering a profile of sea-shore to mountain top tropical vegetation and also one of the last remaining natural forest in Java Island. The park holds over 700 species of plant life of which at 57 are classified as rare in Indonesia and maybe in the world. This natural park has a vast array they wildlife, quite members of which are endangered or rare such as Javan Rhinoceros. Some of animals are so unafraid that freely wander in and around the tourist lodges there, others are sighted almost every days, but many are heard rather than seen and same core rarely seen. The park also covers a wide variety of marine habitats such as the rocky shores, mangrove swamps, mud flats, sea grass beds, coral reefs and sea trenches, providing diverse and fascinating insights into the underwater world.